Level II Services: Preventive services for which clinicians and care systems should assess the need. These services should be recommended to each patient as they have value, but less than those in Level I.
|The USPSTF recommendations are fully endorsed by the ICSI Preventive Services work group.
||Grade of Recommendation and Level of Certainty as Evaluated by USPSTF|
||Grade of Recommendation:
Level of Certainty:
The USPSTF found adequate evidence that effective interventions can reduce violence, abuse and physical or mental harms for women of reproductive age.
The USPSTF found inadequate evidence that screening or early detection reduces exposure to abuse or reduces physical or mental harms or mortality for elderly and vulnerable adults.
For IPV, the USPSTF found adequate evidence that the risk for harm to the individual from screening or interventions is no greater than small.
For elderly and vulnerable adults, the USPSTF found inadequate evidence on the harms of screening or interventions.
The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening women of childbearing age for IPV has a moderate net benefit.
The USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of screening elderly or vulnerable adults for abuse are uncertain, and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined.”
|Implementation Tools and Strategies:
Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults